The Municipality was named from the ancient Aithikia, which is mentioned by Homer and Strabo, it was the place of the people of Aithikon, particularly proud people who were dedicated to guarding the passage from Epirus to Thessaly.
In 148 BC when the Romans completed the conquest of Thessaly, they assigned to Aithikians and Athamanes the guarding of the strategic passages of Pindos rewarding them with privileges.
In 1535, Thessaly was conquered by the Turks. This period marked the development of the area due to the massive displacement of the inhabitants of the mountain plain of Thessaly. This was the beginning of a long tradition in activities such as the animal husbandry, weaving wool items and the special architecture of Epirus houses, churches, monasteries and bridges.
During the 18th century, there were churches built, monasteries and magnificent buildings that have survived until today to prove the existence of a glorious era of social stratification and privileges. An important fact is that in Pindos, men never wore a fez and women lived free compared to the women living on the valley during the Ottoman period.
The domination of Ali Pasha of Ioannina in 1758 brought many changes.
When Ali Pasha was put in the place of “nterventzi” of Thessaly (chief of the army for the safety of roads and mountain passes), the Turks started interfering in the affairs of mountain villages. According to data given by F. POUQEVILLE for the period between 1806-1815 and the demographic data of Triki Code of 1820, which was drawn up by Ali Pasha for tax reasons: In Gardiki from 120 families only 70 remained, in Neraidochori only 40 from the 300 and in Desi 70 from the 80. The fall of Ali Pasha and his death in 1822 did not stop the disaster. After that came the outbreak of the Greek Revolution.
The destruction of the villages and the exodus of residents continued. In June of 1823 the Turkish-Albanian troops destroyed everything in their passage. Residents left their homes and sought refuge in the safety of the mountains.
The villages of Pertouli, Neraidochori and Pyrra were completely destroyed.
During the II World War, the mountainous area was part of the free Greece and there where the headquarters of the revolutionary organization EAM-ELAS.
In Elati in the summer of 1944, the Political Committee of National Liberation founded Pedagogical Academy which operated during the summer months under the direction of eminent pedagogue Rosa Imvrioti, author and leading figure of the Communist Movement of Greek Teachers.